I think it depends on the language. Every language has its own names for emotions, some are missing one emotion and have other names for other sets and intensities of emotion that others do not have.
For instance, in my native language there are 7 forms + 2 genders + diminutives for every word. We have a huge collection of words, which stand for one concrete thing, unlike in English. But I still miss a proper word for "Excited" as in [I am excited]. There is no possible way to tell "I am excited" in my language, despite having the word for "exciting". It just is impossible to fashion the word to the feeling due to grammar and it would sound very awkward. So we have to resort to use it in English, or improvise a whole new sentence to tell it.
But English, Russian, Romanian, Polish and pretty much every language I know, lack the word for other emotion, which we have a name for - "Laime".
English equivalent of "Laime" is "happiness". But Latvian equivalent of "Happiness" is "Prieks". You should treat the word "Laime" as a more joyful, happy, sincere and genuine word, divine word, something very special, even connected to love.
We say "Priecks"/"Priecīgs" when we feel joy, moderate happiness about something - be it small things that make us happy, or be it a new car. It is like really genuine "Joy" in English (but Joy is not "Prieks", it is "Bauda").
We say "Laime"/"Laimīgs" when we feel so overwhelmingly happy and satisfied of everything - our life, children, careers, very sincere gifts. It is as pure emotion as it can be! It is something divine, uplifting, something what makes us forget all the trouble.
Unfortunately, you will not find "Laime" used as often in Latvian as "Happy" in English, since "Laime" is much harder to achieve, nearly impossible in our day and age. The word is not therefore beat up and overused - it shows much stronger emotion when used properly. I use it when I feel endlessly, unconditionally in love.
So, as for your question - I think we as a humanity have felt all the emotions, depends on our local culture and influences, if jealousy, hate, love, or other emotions are more acceptable than elsewhere. Our languages give words a far more significant meaning to the same emotions other people don't have the word for in most other languages. Fernweh, scriptulient, Ultracrepidarian, Waldeinsamkeit. Every language is a new treasure cove of words which you may never grok! You may live all your life feeling emotions you will never have the word for.
There even is a word for a dance people accidentally dance when giving right of way to one another by stepping aside, but always end up in front of one another; can't find it right now.