Most of these are crap. You are giving one piece of information to the next generation of humans who have lost all knowledge. How useful will it be for the to know about atoms? Or harmonic motion? Or Euler's identity?
My first thought was "germs" – wash your hands, don't shit where you sleep and eat, etc., and was pleased to see scientist #4 gave the same answer. It's non-obvious and will save a lot of people's lives.
Teaching them the scientific method isn't bad either, assuming they live long enough to put it to good use!