Can anonymous publications/research win the Nobel Prize? I assume not as it would defeat the point, and since they can't, it'll be sometime yet. I think the barrier soon to giving a computer the prize won't be quality of work but rather public sentiment and tradition, so anonymity could easily be the answer.
EDIT: or publishing under the pseudonymous facade of a real person, is what I meant. I was asleep when I wrote this earlier, and it totally doesn't make sense.