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Hey y'all! Thanks so much for watching and asking great questions. I'll try my best to reply to the concerns that were brought up and go from there.

First, it's important to say that optogenetics likely has no plans for human use. In order for optogenetics to work, your genetic code has to be manipulated. That means that someone would need to modify the genetic code of an embryo. Considering the level of controversy surrounding genetic modification of humans, this is extremely unlikely. If it were ever to be considered for human use, it would (of course) bring up a ton of ethical concerns. However, if you were to modify all neurons, it would be difficult to get a specific response. I guess I'm trying to say that optogenetics doesn't have many practical uses at this time.

So you might be asking, "well then why is optogenetics useful for humans?" This gets to your implications question. If we are able to identify the neuronal pathway of a mental health disorder, then we can better develop therapeutic interventions for it. For example, we could create better medications that target those specific neurons or more accurately use deep brain stimulation. Imagine having a medication that affects only the neurons in your amygdala and reduces your panic response to normal levels. The more we know about these pathways, the better treatment we can provide!

As a footnote, since it was mentioned, ethical considerations are extremely important. Unfortunately, there are plenty of examples of horrible, unethical studies conducted by researchers in the name of science. However, today, all scientists are responsible for ethical, responsible research. Almost all professional associations, government agencies, and universities have adopted specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics. Additionally, funding and approval processes are set up in a way to require ethical conduct in research and it eliminates studies where the benefits do not outweigh the damages. Failure to uphold an ethical code can result in loss of employment, formal disciplinary action, and criminal charges. It is not something that is taken lightly!

In any case, thanks again for watching! I'm glad you all liked it and I look forward to any other questions you may have!!

Haha, congratulations on getting over your fear of vomiting! That's a great story. It sounds like you had a pretty good therapist. NBA Jam was one of my favorites growing up. I have an SNES in my office and still play it to this day with my clients. Carrying on the tradition, I guess!

Ohhhhhh, thank you kind person! That has been fixed.

And this is why so many PhDs will not go into academia. My wife included! She'll be getting her PhD in neuroscience next year, but is not even looking at becoming a PI.

This looks like Degas met Goya and got depressed. I like it!

Oh hell yeah! I've been loving Slip Away by Perfume Genius. There is a music video, but the Spotify version is better and the complete version:

Gross, but also cool.

What questions or comments do you hate getting from people about your trans experience?

Way to go! It's a big step and the road ahead may be bumpy, but you got this!

Yeah, the issue with phrenology was the idea that you could read skull bumps. But you're right, atrophy of the brain often has some serious consequences, but by no means have we "mapped" the brain to traits. But the future is full of opportunity!

As for Socrates, it's more just that the dialectic method is a big contributor to the scientific method. Aristotle definitely developed it far beyond that.

Thanks for watching! :)

Hey there! Thanks for watching this intro to our new segment! If you have any questions or would like to suggest a topic for future videos, feel free to respond here!

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