I'll preface this by saying that I only recently began listening to many of these.
Common Sense with Dan Carlin: Interesting perspective on politics.
Data Skeptic: Data science from a skeptical perspective.
Hello Internet: CGPGrey and Brady Haran talking about things.
Invisibilia: Similar to 99% Invisible but with a broader scope.
Lore: True and scary stories from history.
Note to Self: Discussion about being human in this day and age.
Play Dead: Discussing death in video games. -- This one is very new, and I can't find a proper link for it.
Still Buffering: Two sisters, roughly 15 years apart, discuss being a teenager.
Still Untitled: Adam Savage et al. talk about things.
The Greatest Generation: A Star Trek: TNG podcast by two guys who are a bit embarrassed to have a Star Trek: TNG podcast.
The Minimalists: mnmlsm -- I'm actually thinking of unsubscibing from this one. It seems to be getting a bit repetitive.
The Partially Examined Life: A philosophy podcast for the everyman.
The Skeptic's Guide to the Universe: A show about science and skepticism.
Useful Science: Interesting topics in science.
Waking Up: Sam Harris discusses a variety of topics ranging from politics to science to spirituality.
Welcome to Night Vale: Hilarity and Cosmic Horror combine in a way so beautiful and terrifying that your attempts to comprehend it will thow you into the depths of insanity.