Glad you enjoyed it! I don't really have a big a repertoire as I would like in that area. Good ones off the top of my head that are "intellectual" per se or at least make you think more than your average ones are already pretty popular for what they are. My list would be mainly sci-fi and a bit deviant from Psycho-Pass's theme. Also, I've yet to catch up on it, but season 2 of Psycho-Pass is out.
I really loved their solution as well, and there aren't many that I know of yet that stood out as much, but I'll do what I can!
- Ghost in the Shell, the original movie, oh baby. Closest thing to Psycho-Pass I could think of. It's a keeper. Explores the thoughts of what is considered a life-form once we can put human conscious being into cyborgs and once algorithms become self-aware.
- Full-Metal Alchemist: Brotherhood, You can hear about this anywhere. After finishing FMA, I'd opt to see this if you haven't already. Delves into subplots the worth of a human soul. Very action and plot oriented.
- Darker Than Black One of the first anime's I ever watched. I can't really remember the plot so much but remember it was very good.
- Gantz (the manga), An all time favorite for me. Delves into the thoughts of life-after death, terrestrials, cloning ethics, so many things. It's very long and can get graphic. Roughly 360 chapters with a fulfilling plot.
- Spice and Wolf, dialogue heavy, slim to no action but interesting in terms of mercantilism and trade. Follows a merchant in medieval times and his companion, cute story with interesting comments on merchants and economy.
- Eden of the East, The whole series is a sequence of movies. I can't say it was amazing, but a good watch. Kept the interest, but nothing to head-y per se
- Mushi-shi, the last in a line of progressively deviating interesting animes (save Gantz). This is another traveling main character like spice and wolf, but with a vastly different plot focused on fictional animals. No REAL plot to drive it but a good one with interesting stories and beautiful art.
Hope this keeps you satiated. :D Down the list it becomes interesting in a different light, not quite so much for questioning big ideas. None-the-less, pick and choose as you wish. Of course, enjoy!