Disturbing images emerged of deprived, scared children—a devastating by-product of the regime’s ‘pro-natalist’ polices. Photos of infants with their heads shaved, chained to their cribs and lying in puddles of urine rocked the globe. Some 170,000 orphans were discovered crammed into 700 institutions. The children were being raised in overcrowded, state-run orphanages where child rearing was approached with Soviet-style efficiency. The result was a generation brought up without care, social interaction, stimulation or psychological comfort. Romania’s institutionalised children displayed profound developmental delays and abnormal social-emotional behaviour.