Human-altered selective forces. (a) Selection in built environments: feathers left on a window illustrate the high death toll of birds colliding with buildings and automobiles , selecting against migratory behaviour  and for manoeuvrability . (b) Selection to avoid hunting or harvesting: humans target individuals with preferred traits, selecting against traits such as long ivory tusks . (c) Selection in novel communities: both abiotic and biotic selection pressures are reshaped when humans bring together species in new assemblages, as found in cardinals nesting in introduced honeysuckles . (d) Selection on dispersal: fragmented landscapes select for individuals that can remain in hospitable environments, favouring non-dispersing seeds in Crepis sancta . (e) Selection on inheritance systems: rapid evolution associated with human cultivation can alter the genome, with increased recombination rates and polyploidy found in many domesticated plants, such as oats . Photographs: (a) Alan Hensel; (b) Sarah Otto; (c) Jeff Whitlock; (d) Susan Lambrecht; (e) Henrik Sendelbach.