Pretty broad post, it's hard to write a response without resorting to clichés and generalisations, so I'm just trying to relate it to my personal experience.
To the title question; I would say yes, but what can you do about it? Any thinking person is going to have some gripes about their society, that can't be avoided. However, if your gripes are fundamental, you could consider moving somewhere else. You say you've lived abroad, I guess you want to stay in the US because of family? Obviously no country is perfect, there is no hidden utopia out there, but a lot of countries are quite different from the US. The US might improve over time, but there are no guarantees, and it would take a long time. Personally I would never live there, far too right wing for my taste.
The way I see it you have two options:
1. Find somewhere else to live.
2. Learn to accept the faults of your country, and find a way to live within it.
Capitalism is everywhere, I don't know of any countries that aren't part of the system (North Korea?). However, the way in which it manifests changes. My impression is that the US has a particularly extreme interpretation of it, focused on companies' rights rather than employees', and seemingly always emphasising business over nearly any other concern, such as environmentalism or the prosperity of working people. This does not apply everywhere. I would say most (all?) European countries are to the left of the US political centre, at least economically.
To illustrate, let me give an example. I used to work for Toshiba, and one of the top executives from the US part of my division came to visit (in the UK) and do a presentation. He said something I will never forget. The company was going through some financial strife, and to reassure us, he said "Actually, the company is prioritising protecting jobs." It wasn't the words that surprised me. It was how he said it. He was almost laughing, incredulous, as if the very notion was absurd. Toshiba is a Japanese company, obviously, and in Japan corporations feel social responsibility, and will try to avoid mass firings (this could also be due to regulatory standards, not sure). Similarly, in most European countries, there are regulations protecting employees from being fired for no reason, or without being given any reasonable notice. Not so in the US. When multi-national corporations need to downsize, they fire their US staff first, because it's easy, then later they move on to staff in other countries, where the process is more regulated.
On the other hand, I have begun to get the impression that a huge number Americans live off government money, such as disability (whether or not they really are disabled), so I guess nothing is as clear cut as one might think. I don't know how unemployment benefits work in the US, but when I was unemployed in the UK some years ago, I was getting £70 per week, enough to pay HALF of my rent (due to some circumstances I will not go into here, I was not given the rent support I would normally have been entitled to for up to 3 months). To be fair, the UK is one of the most right wing countries in Europe.
In short, not every country is the same. Personally I am leaving the UK, to move back to Norway. This place is just too right wing for me.
What about acceptance? I guess I'm not the best person to comment, I'm fucking off to Norway because I can't accept this place, but I have a few things to add.
First of all, not every job is equally soul sucking. If you can find a job that you find tolerable (I think there are limits to how enjoyable a job can really be), that will be a lot easier on your mental health. For example I'm a lot happier since I left Toshiba, I used to get daily stress headaches, and I don't any more. If you can find a town/city that you like, that helps a lot as well. I have found that I'm much happier where I live now than where I was a couple of years ago, because it suits my personality more.
My advice would be to try different things every few years, and see what you like. There are many kinds of places, jobs, and people out there. Be true to yourself, but don't be inflexible. You will have an easier time doing things that feel natural to you, but there is NOWHERE, NOTHING and NO-ONE which will ever suit you 100%. Don't seek perfection, seek perspective.