TIH: November 13, 1918- For the first time since 1453, Constantinople is occupied by foreign nationals after WWI. · 0
- The Armistice of Mudros, which defined the end of World War I for the Ottoman Empire, mentions the occupation of Bosphorous fort and Dardanelles fort. On October 30, 1918, Somerset Gough-Calthorpe, the British signatory stated the Triple Entente's position that they had no intention to dismantle the government or place it under military occupation by "occupying Constantinople". This verbal promise and lack of mention of the occupation of Constantinople in the armistice did not change the realities for the Ottoman Empire. Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe puts the British position as "No kind of favour whatsoever to any Turk and to hold out no hope for them" The Ottoman side returned to the capital with a personal letter from Calthorpe, intended for Rauf Orbay, in which he promised on behalf of the British government that only British and French troops would be used in the occupation of the Straits fortifications. A small number of Ottoman troops could be allowed to stay on in the occupied areas as a symbol of sovereignty.
This occupation signifies the final death knell of the Ottoman Empire. Shoutout to the book A Peace to End All Peace